TADM2E 4.23

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4-23. We seek to sort a sequence S of n integers with many duplications, such that the number of distinct integers in S is O(log n). Give an O(n log log n) worst-case time algorithm to sort such sequences.


With a self-balancing binary search tree, we can achieve O(log k) search and insertion (where k is the number of elements in the tree).

1. For each element in the sequence S, try and insert it into the tree.

- If the element is present, we increment a count variable stored at a node.

- If the element is not present, we insert the node and set the count = 1.

2. Traverse the tree in order and add elements according to the count.

Since the tree is guaranteed not to exceed log n elements, search and insertion take O(log log n).

Thus, this entire algorithm takes O(n * log log n + log n) = O(n * log log n) as required.